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Nobel prize of physics, medicine, peace, litterature, chemistry, economics autumn 2023

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Message  MurielB Mar 3 Oct - 14:51

https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/2023/press-release/#:~:text=Pierre%20Agostini%2C%20Ferenc%20Krausz%20and,electrons%20move%20or%20change%20energy.
Nobel Prize in Physics 2023
Pierre Agostini
The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA

Ferenc Krausz
Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany

Anne L’Huillier
Lund University, Sweden

“for experimental methods that generate attosecond pulses of light for the study of electron dynamics in matter”

Experiments with light capture the shortest of moments
The three Nobel Laureates in Physics 2023 are being recognised for their experiments, which have given humanity new tools for exploring the world of electrons inside atoms and molecules. Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz and Anne L’Huillier have demonstrated a way to create extremely short pulses of light that can be used to measure the rapid processes in which electrons move or change energy.

Fast-moving events flow into each other when perceived by humans, just like a film that consists of still images is perceived as continual movement. If we want to investigate really brief events, we need special technology. In the world of electrons, changes occur in a few tenths of an attosecond – an attosecond is so short that there are as many in one second as there have been seconds since the birth of the universe.

The laureates’ experiments have produced pulses of light so short that they are measured in attoseconds, thus demonstrating that these pulses can be used to provide images of processes inside atoms and molecules.

In 1987, Anne L’Huillier discovered that many different overtones of light arose when she transmitted infrared laser light through a noble gas. Each overtone is a light wave with a given number of cycles for each cycle in the laser light. They are caused by the laser light interacting with atoms in the gas; it gives some electrons extra energy that is then emitted as light. Anne L’Huillier has continued to explore this phenomenon, laying the ground for subsequent breakthroughs.

In 2001, Pierre Agostini succeeded in producing and investigating a series of consecutive light pulses, in which each pulse lasted just 250 attoseconds. At the same time, Ferenc Krausz was working with another type of experiment, one that made it possible to isolate a single light pulse that lasted 650 attoseconds.

The laureates’ contributions have enabled the investigation of processes that are so rapid they were previously impossible to follow.

“We can now open the door to the world of electrons. Attosecond physics gives us the opportunity to understand mechanisms that are governed by electrons. The next step will be utilising them,” says Eva Olsson, Chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics.

There are potential applications in many different areas. In electronics, for example, it is important to understand and control how electrons behave in a material. Attosecond pulses can also be used to identify different molecules, such as in medical diagnostics.



Dernière édition par MurielB le Lun 9 Oct - 11:33, édité 10 fois

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Message  MurielB Ven 6 Oct - 13:31

https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2023/press-release/
Nobel prize in medicine to Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman

for their discoveries concerning nucleoside base modifications that enabled the development of effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19

The discoveries by the two Nobel Laureates were critical for developing effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 during the pandemic that began in early 2020. Through their groundbreaking findings, which have fundamentally changed our understanding of how mRNA interacts with our immune system, the laureates contributed to the unprecedented rate of vaccine development during one of the greatest threats to human health in modern times. 


Dernière édition par MurielB le Lun 9 Oct - 11:23, édité 3 fois

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Message  MurielB Lun 9 Oct - 10:53

Hi https://amp.cnn.com/cnn/2023/10/06/world/nobel-peace-prize-winner-2023-intl/index.html
The Nobel Peace prize been awarded to jailed Iranian activist Narges Mohammadi  for “her fight against the oppression of women in Iran and her fight to promote human rights and freedom for all,” the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced in Oslo on Friday.


Dernière édition par MurielB le Lun 9 Oct - 11:34, édité 3 fois

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Message  MurielB Lun 9 Oct - 11:05

The Swedish Academy has awarded Norwegian playwright Jon Fosse the 2023 Nobel Prize in literature “for his innovative plays and prose which give voice to the unsayable.”



Dernière édition par MurielB le Lun 9 Oct - 11:35, édité 2 fois

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Message  MurielB Lun 9 Oct - 11:20

The 2023 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Alexei Ekimov of Nanocrystals Technology in New York, Louis Brus of Columbia University, and Moungi Bawendi of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for their work on the development of nanoscale particles known as quantum dots: specks of matter so small that 

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